This page includes a complete archive of all past issues of the Montana Native Plant Society quarterly Kelseya newsletter except for recent past issues found on the Current and Recent Issues page.
Click on these links to jump through the archive list to the various volumes:
The Kelseya has been published since the Fall of 1987, which was Volume 1, No. 1. Since then, the pattern has been: No. 1 - Fall; No. 2 - Winter; No. 3 - Spring; and No. 4 - Summer. Thanks to Peter Lesica for scanning the early editions. This archive comprises a complete collection of the newsletters - cases where no issue was published in a particular quarter are noted.
V 1, No. 1, Fall 1987 - In this, the inaugural Newsletter of MNPS, Society President, Kathy Ahlenslager wrote "Native Plant Society founded in Montana" about a year after she, Peter Lesica, and Virginia Vincent first discussed the idea; Steve Shelly wrote a "Rare and Endangered Plant Profile" about Howellea aquatilis; a field trip report by Peter Lesica, "Canoeing on the Swan" included a list of plants observed; and the issue contained society news, and announcement of a contest for a newsletter mascot plant, and a call for members.
V 1, No. 2, Winter 1988 - This is the first issue as the Kelseya with an article by Kathy Ahlenslager documenting the competition including a nice description of the aptness of the choice written by Peter Lesica; Kathy Ahlenslager also wrote "Montana Native Plant Society Sprouts," announcing the November 19, 1987 incorporation of the Society; a Rare and Endangered Plant Profile by Sue Trull, "Utricularia: A mouthful, but not for us"; "What is this thing called ‘Weed"?" by Carol J. Morris; and timely society news.
V 1, No. 3, Spring 1988 - Rare and Endangered Plant Profile on Claytonia lanceolata Pursh var. flava (A. Nels.) C. L. Hitchcock, yellow springbeauty; by Steve Shelly and Jan Nixon; along with the announcement of the first MNPS annual meeting, and numerous programs, field trips, and botanically related classes available around Montana.
V 1, No 4, Summer 1988 - "Native Plant Diseases," by Sue Geske presents clues as to a variety of plant diseases that might be seen on native plants; Margaret Scoles touts the virtures of Buhcloe dactyloides in "Native Buffalograss for Montana Lawns;" and Peter Lesica offers a biographical sketch of Francis Kelsey in "Who was Kelsey, Anyway"
V 2, No. 1, Fall 1988 - Steve Shelly and Lisa Schassberger profile one of Montana's Rare and Endangered Plants, Arabis fecunda, Sapphire Rockcress; in "Symbiosis: Plants and Their Fungal Partners" Frank Dugan outlines the importance of micorrhizal and other fungal interactions with plants; Jeanne Pfeiffer reports about, "Wildflowers Sought for use in Low-Cost, Low-Care Landscaping;" and a memoriam for revered naturalist, Larry Thompson.
V 2, No. 2, Winter 1989 – In “Timberline: What, Where, Who, and Why,” Sue Trull reviews the characteristics and causes of the timberline phenomenon with species examples and references; in the series, Profile: Montana’s Native Plants, an article on “Miner’s Lettuce, Montia (Claytonia) perfoliata” is reprinted from the Washington Native Plant Society newsletter; “Nettles… Better than Spinach ever thought of Being” is a recipe for this edible wild plant reprinted from D.R. Kirk’s book on edible wild plants; Dee Strickler gives directions to one location for Kelseya uniflora within easy walking distance of a road; and “Wildflower Conservation Guidelines,” is reprinted from The Columbine.
V 2, No. 3, Spring 1989 – “Montana’s Microflora: Diatoms” by Loren L. Bahls tells about frustules and other diatomaceous facts and includes references; Charlotte Heron issues a “Purple Loosestrife Alert” with references; Anne Banks tells the etymology of “Valley of the Flowers”; and in “Bitterroots Babied,” Kim Williams relates some tips on the cultivation of Montana’s floral emblem.
V 2, No. 4, Summer 1989 - "Paintbrushes are Beautiful Bandits" by Peter Lesica nicely describes Castelleja spp. and includes references; a collections report on Goodyera repens documented by Wayne Phillips from the Little Belt Mountains; "After Forest Wildfire, then what?... Masses of Flowers!" by Peter Stickney is reprinted from the newsletter of the UM Wilderness Studies and Information Center; in "Imminence of Extinction within the Next Ten Years" Virginia Vincent introduces the Center for Plant Conservation and concerns about pending extinctions at the end of the 20th century; and a field trip report by Kathy Ahlenslager discusses Lomatium spp. on Mount Sentinel.
V 3, No. 1, Fall 1989 – In “Montana Lichens… the Big Picture,” Bruce McCune offers a nice little primer on lichens found in the state and recommends ways to begin studying them more closely; “Genetically Altered Fungus Used on Missoula Weeds” is an MSU news service report on the use of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for broad leaf weed control; Bill Tall Bull discusses the Cheyenne view of the close relationship between plants, animals, and humans in the cycle of life; Kathy Ahlenslager reviews, A Field guide to Wildflowers of the Southern Interior of British Coumbia and Adjacent Parts of Washington, Idaho, and Montana by Joan Burbridge, 1989; “An Update on Biological Control of Diffuse and Spotted Knapweed,” is an adaptation from an article by Sara S. Rosenthal; a whole series of great field trip reports covering the state from Yellowstone to Glacier are included with detailed species lists; and a book review of Great Escapes: Montana’s State Parks written by Rick Newby.
V 3, No. 2, Winter 1990 – Steve Shelly profiles one of Montana’s Rare and Endangered plants, “Lemhi Beardtongue”; Peter Lesica illustrates a very strange plant, Manypeeplia upsidownia; a Bert Lindler article reprinted from the Great Falls Tribune discusses the efforts of Wayne Phillips and several volunteers to document some rare ochids along the Rocky Mountain Front, “Rare Plants Found in New Areas along Front… Orchid Hunt Succeeds”; “McWenneger Slough,” a field trip report by Anne Garde documented a number of aquatic species seen there; and Anne Banks reviewed, Rare Plants of Colorado published by the Colorado Native Plant Society.
V 3, No. 3, Spring 1990 – Judy Hoy describes many plants found on their Ravalli County land that are unique or uncommon in the area, thus her “Bitterroot Valley Refugium”; Carol Morris describes, “Propagating Wild Violets for your Garden”; “Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge Plant Slides,” by Sheila Morrison describes a project that offered a set of 140 instructional slides with commentary on the plants of the refuge; in “Wildcrafting in Montana,” Robyn Klein describes the myriad uses for plants in medicinals and the importance of care for the species in taking plants from natural environments; Steve Wirt describes, “Limestone Columbine” Aquilegia jonesii.
V 3, No. 4, Summer 1990 – “Assumptions, Facts – and Lack of Facts – About Seeds; John Pierce has advice on, “Getting Started with Douglasia”; and among several field trip reports is one on “Life on the Ledges of Blodgett Canyon” with a list of species quite uncommon.
V 4, No. 1, Fall 1990 – “Kelseya uniflora the MNSP ‘Mascot,’” recaps information published in earlier editions; “Research Natural Areas – Natural Yardsticks” announced the establishment of some new RNAs and described the program; and field trip reports included “Centennial Valley – Aspen Groves to Sandhills,” “Botanizing on Horseback” (on the Boulder River near Big Timber), “Fire Recovery: The Second Year” (Grayling Creek Drainage in YNP, and “Statewide Field Trip: Pine Butte Preserve to Gibson Reservoir”.
V 4, No. 2, Winter 1991 – “Sulphur Cinquefoil – An Introduced Weed to Equal Knapweed and Spurge by 2020?” by Peter M. Rice includes a thorough description of the plant and tips to distinguish it from P. gracilis; Peter Lesica discusses the “Form of Leaves” with observations as to the ecological factors that may be involved and includes references for further reading; field trip reports include, “Lee Metcalf Wildlife Refuge,” “Fire Lookout on Stark Mountain,” and an error correction related to the Gibson Reservoir trip reported in the previous issue; and a report on Nature Conservancy Awards to Peter Lesica, Elly Jones, Bob Anderson, and Anne Morely.
V 4, No. 3, Spring 1991 – “Algae in Montana’s Waters: There’s More to a Stream than Water and Fish,” by Loren Bahls offers an overview of the composition and importance of the “lower” plant populations of Montana’s waterways that includes references for further reading; Dee Strickler describes Aquilegia variations in, “A Native Columbine Hybrid: Aquilegia x Eliator with references; and editor Jan Nixon includes, “The Earlybirds: Montana’s Earliest Spring Wildflowers.”
V 4, No. 4, Summer 1991 – “Has Salt Tolerance Pre-Adapted Inland Saltgrass for Metal Tolerance?” by R. A. Prodgers discusses ecological and physiological characteristics of Distichlis spicata var stricta that allow it to occur on metal-contaminated sites along Silver Bow Creek with references; Carol J. Morris offers “Tips for Wildflower Cultivation”; B. John Losensky offers tips to reduce spotted knapweed spread in, “Roadside Vegetation Cover Affects Spotted Knapweed Density”; field trip reports for “Miller Creek Shooting Stars,” “Columbia Mountain Trail,” and “Mount Jumbo – Over the Top”; and the issue included as an insert an identification sheet comparing the invasive Potentilla recta with the native Potentilla gracilis.
V 5, No. 1, Fall 1991 – “The Rattlesnake Experience,” by John Pierce describes his method of documenting the flora of the proposed Rattlesnake Wilderness and the mounting technique he used to make a publicly accessible collection of the plants for the public library; Society President, Angela Evenden discussed the interagency process for development of a natural areas network emphasizing approximately 9 different sorts of natural areas; “Yew Bark Collection Position Appealed,” discusses many issues related to the collection of Yew bark for taxol purposes and appeal of a categorical exclusion decision related to allowing such collection; a “Bits and Pieces” collection of small notices includes inter alia information on the demise of David Douglas while doing fieldwork in Hawaii and the finding of a still green 17-million-year-old magnolia leaf in Idaho; field trip reports include recounts of trips to Kirk Hill, gardens around Polson and Ronan, explorations in the Big Timber area, Packer Meadows, St. Mary’s Peak, Shoo-Fly Meadows, and Mt. Siyeh; and Judy Hoy updates earlier observations on the occurrence of vagrant lichens in Western Montana.
V 5, No. 2, Winter 1992 – In a “Profile of Montana’s Uncommon Plants,” Jan Nixon describes, “Jove’s Buttercup… Giant of the Plant World”; a reprinted newspaper article reports, “Howellia aquatilis Proposed for Listing as and Endangered Species; “Conservation Bullets,” from the Conservation Committee discuss wetlands protection, endangered species act renewal, toll-free pesticide info, Montana Wilderness Bill, recycling hotline, and Audubon Saves Ancient Cedar Grove; Ruth Unger offers, “Successful seed Collecting Tips for Natives”; “Knapweed as a Cash Crop,” is an interesting little reprint on what would seem an unlikely problem; and Richard Prodgers reports on, “Unusual Species Found on Reclaimed Coal Mine Sites.”
V 5, No. 3, Spring 1992 – “Montana’s Most Diminutive Alpine Plants,” by Douglas N. Reynolds gives adaptive and ecological accounts of several alpine annuals including Koenigia islandica, Polygonum minimum, and Gentiana tenella – with references for further reading; while not a native plant, St. John's Wort is considered by Kim Erica Schleicher in a “Montana Medicinals” article; “Yellow is the Color of Spring,” by Peter Lesica documents his observations on the relative abundance of yellow flowers in early spring and offers a pollinator related hypothesis for the phenomenon; and the Hoskins Lake and Wolf-Weigel Research Natural Areas in the Kootenai National Forest are described.
V 5, No. 4, Summer 1992 – Loren Bahls advances our knowledge of some small cogs and wheels in: “A Bouquet of Algae: Plant Diversity and Water Quality in Montana’s Streams”; “In Memoriam: Arthur Cronquist, 1919 – 1992”includes two compelling biographical sketches of the great botanist; Robyn Klein helps answer: “Astragalus americanus, A Healing Plant?”; and in “Big Trees under the Big Sky,” Steve Chadde and Steve Arno document the revitalization of Montana’s Big Tree Register and include a list of the champions and also species with no records.
V 6, No. 1, Fall 1992 – Angela Evenden reports “Thirteen New Research Natural Areas add 9499 Acres to Northern Region RNA System”; “That’s Why They Call it Fall” by Peter Lesica tells why trees shed their leaves and what determines when they do it; “West Boulder: Wetlands to Limestone Cliffs,” by Linda Iverson documents a June 6 Field Trip with species discussions; and the issue includes a small publication note on a new book: The Propagation of Alpine Plants and Dwarf Bulbs, by Brian Halliwell.
V 6, No. 2, Winter 1993 – Bonnie Heidel includes a plea for specimens of Montana native plants not documented since 1940 or earlier in, “Wanted: Alive”; and Peter Lesica discusses the uncertainties and roles of phytochromes and vernalization in, “When to Bloom”.
V 6, No. 3, Spring 1993 – “Type Localities and the Botanical Exploration of Montana,” by Peter Lesica relates the discovery of species new to science to the selection of a representative plant and location – the type; “Update on the Status of Howelia aquatilis documents the sometimes interesting interaction between botany and bureaucracy; another bulletin documents “The Value of Old Growth Forests”; the first iteration of the “Montana Native Plant Society Guidelines for Collection [of] Native Plants 0-1993” appeared; in “Rediscovering Lost Species,” Judy Hoy discusses Wally Albert’s discovery in the greater Missoula area of several species not documented as having been seen for many years in Montana; and Bonnie Heidel says to, “Strike that Sedge” in a short note relating to the confusions and distinctions between Carex rostrata and C. utriculata.
V 6, No. 4, Summer 1993 – “Orobanche corymbosa, a ‘Low Profile’ Montana Native,” by Judy Hoy reports the sighting of several populations in Ravalli and Deer Lodge Counties; Richard Prodgers shows how to measure some community dynamics in, “People Change – So Do Plant Communities”; “Harvesting of Pacific Yew No Longer Needed for Cancer Drug”; and “Conserving Rare Plants: The Forest Service and Center for Plant Conservation Join Forces”.
V 7, No. 1, Fall 1993 – In “Forests Beneath Your Feet,” Sharon Eversman gives us a fine primer on mosses, liverworts, lichens, and fungi along with a short bibliography for further reading; a thorough report on the Annual Meeting at Wall Creek and the Gravely range; Field Trip Reports included: “Fall Foray with Dr. Mushroom”; “Two Moon Park”; “Meeteetse Spires”; “South and North Pryors”; and “Willow Creek, Beartooth Mountains”; and a memoriam to Sherman J. Preece.
V 7, No. 2, Winter 1994 – “Growing Hardy Ferns in Montana,” by Jean Parker tells why and how to propagate native ferns and includes a list of species characteristics and a list of references; a field trip report, “Flathead Lake Mushroom Foray,” documents many fungi found on a Swan Valley trip; and there is a review of Jerry DeSanto's Bitterroot.
V 7, No. 3, Spring 1994 – “Gardening on the Wild Side – Planting a Prairie Garden,” by Linda Iverson offers practical guidance for establishing native prairie areas in your yard [note: Linda refers to planting resources that MNPS continually updates and that are available on the Landscaping section of this website]; “Gilia minutiflora: A New Plant for Montana,” by Judy Hoy reports finding this species in the Bitterroot; Field Trip Reports include: “Jewel Basin Mushroom Madness,” wherein Larry Evans documents many species found and includes a cautionary note on the difficulty of some field identification, Neal Brown reports on a Purple Loosestrife pull in the Nine-Pipes area that also brought attention to a variety of small fauna, and Linda Iverson describes work done to help maintain native vegetation at an underpass in Livingston; and Steve Shelly describes programs planned throughout the state for “National Wildflower Week: Celebrating Wildflowers!”
V 7, No. 4, Summer 1994 – In, “...What List?” Bonnie Heidel describes the lists that are the basis of referring to a plant as sensitive, threatened, or endangered; “High, Dry and Handsome, Montana's Pryor Desert - 7th Annual MNPS Meeting,” presents and excellent summary of this meeting with key species seen; “Loosestrife Growers Ordered to Remove Plants,” and “Studies Indicate Loosestrife Cultivars are Fertile,” and “Beware: Plants on the Loose!” highlight potential problems with invasive exotics including Lythrum slicaria and potentially with L. virgatum in the Flathead area; a reprinted piece from Montana Audubon News describes “The Value of Old Growth Forests”; a field trip report tells about finding Thelypteris phegopteris along the Bull River; Peter Rice reports on herbarium computerization in, “Invasion of Killer Weeds Saves Herbarium!!” (includes a graphic representation of the expansion of Campanula rapunculoides in the Northwest; and “Spotted Knapweed Invades Ungrazed Bunchgrass Communities” by John Lacey, Peter Husby, and Gene Handl describes sampling methods and results on the Blackfoot-Clearwater Game Range. We are looking for the pamphlet, "High, Dry and Handsome" mentioned above, but as a result of that search have found and archived the following related treasures: Pryor Mountain Desert: A Montana Native Plant Society naturalist's Guide by Donald H. Heinze with Mark Taylor and "Prior Mountain Mini Key."
V 8, No. 1, Fall 1994 – Dee Strickler describes the challenges of sorting out a species decision among three Northwest Montana Penstemons (P. albertinus, wilcoxii, and attenuatus) in, “Penstemon Puzzle in Northwest Montana; a Conservation Bullet is reprented from Montana Audubon News, “Cottonwood Logging would Devastate Montana Rivers”; Bonnie Heidel tells about, “Conducting Botanical Surveys... at your Local Library”; a notice of the honor bestowed upon Klaus Lackshewitz and Sherman Preece for their pivotal roles in establishing the Native Plant Garden at UM; Field Trip Reports include: “Comertown Prairie Pothole Preserve”, “Kane's Grove”, “Little Belt Wildflower Rambles”, “Elk Horn Peak... and Tuber Anxiety?!?”, “Standard Peak Hike”, “Basking or Baking” (a commentary on the hot, dry summer by Dennis Nichols); and “Biological Weed Control Agents Released at Two Moon Park”.
V 8, No. 2, Winter 1995 – In “Howellia aquatilis – Montana's First Federally Listed Plant Species,” Steve Shelly describes this plant and its ecology; Robert Dorn summarizes early identification work in, “Botanical Exploration in Montana: Part I, 1805-1899” and includes references; and seven new areas are announced in “New Research Natural Areas on National Forests in Montana.
V 8, No. 3, Spring 1995 - “'Endless Sea of Grass'... No Longer,” by Peter Lesica goes over the significance of the conversion of native prairie, includes references for further reading; Terry Wamsley responds to Peter with “CRP – Another Perspective”; Judy Hoy presents, “An Idea for Developing County Plant Lists”; “Botanical Exploration in Montana: Part II, 20th Century Highlights,” continues Robert Dorn's offering from the last issue, includes references to early publications; in “Great Natives in the Garden,” Madeline Mazurski recommends consideration of Synthyris spp.; and a rich assortment of other Society news.
V 8, No. 4, Summer 1995 – In “Flesheaters of the Plant World,” Bonnie Heidel tells about carnivorous plants including 7 species found in Montana: Pinguicula (1), Drosera (3), and Utricularia (3) with illustrations and references; Don Heinze wittily reviews the “Nomenclature Nightmare...” and includes references; and you'll find a short review of Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains by Gary E. Larson.
V 9, No. 1, Fall 1995 – Richart Stout describes research into chemical responses in plants to insect damage in, “How Plants Talk to Each Other”; an obituary for Klaus Lackschewitz reprinted from the Missoulian; Field Trip reports include: “The Grasses of Peet's Hill”, “A Rare Chance to Visit the Sweetgrass Hills”, “Crazy [Mountains] Days”, several trips documented in “Maka Flora Summer Activities”, and annual meeting field trips - “Onion Park / O'Brien Creek RNA”, “Paine Gulch”, “Big Baldy Mountain”, “Belt Creek Dry Fork”, and “South Fork Judith River / Judith Guard Station”; and “Botanical Exploration in Montana, Part 3, W. E. Booth,” by Robert Dorn.
V 9, No. 2, Winter 1996 – An “In Memoriam” on Klaus Lackschewitz by Jerry de Santo accompanied by personal remembrances by Howard Reinhardt, Jean Pfeiffer, Beth Ferris, Susanne L. Bessac and from Mr. Lackschewitz himself; an obituary for Mark Bjorlie; a profile of “Contracted Ricegrass in Montana, “ by Bonnie Heidel; and an activity update in “MNPS Conservation Efforts Move Forward,” by Peter Lesica.
V 9, No. 3, Spring 1996 – Bonnie Heidel reports on, “Spiranthes diluvialis – A Threatened Orchid in Montana”; Peter Lisica offers, “A Different View of Crested Wheatgrass”; find a short review of, Restoring Diversity: Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants by Donald Falk, Constance Millar, and Margaret Olwell; Dennis Nichols offers an intense report, “The Rare & the Beautiful,” on at last finding Common Clarkia among other fine things; Bonnie Heidel writes, “Questions and Answers about Sweetgrass”; a short review of, The Alpine Flora of the Rocky Mountains, Vol. I: The Middle Rockies, by Richard W. Scott; and rush skeleton weed is described in, “New Weed Threatens Montana.”
V 9, No. 4, Summer 1996 – In “Botanical Exploration in Montana, Part 4: W E Booth as Teacher,” Robert Dorn describes the kind of teacher this intrepid Montana foundational botanist was; Dennis Nicholls describes how he came to report a new state large tree record for a paper birch in “A Beauty of a Birch;” and an annual meeting report and other society news. Note: A February 1996 version of “1996 Big Tree Register of Montana's Champion Trees was included as an insert in this issue of the Kelseya. For a current listing and other information about this program, click this link: http://dnrc.mt.gov/forestry/Assistance/BigTree/ to the Montana Big Trees Program in the State DNRC, Forestry Division.
V 10, No. 1, Fall 1996 - “Montana Native Plant Society... It Can't Be Ten Years Already!” by Peter Lesica with help from Kathy Ahlenslager and Virginia Vincent; Bonnie Heidel's drawing of Kelseya uniflora first appears on the masthead; “Wildcrafting... What's Happening in Montana?”; “Alert: Invasion of Tamarisk in Montana,” by Anna Sala and Bonnie Heidel; Richard Prodgers critically reviews a book on rangeland health in “Rangeland Health: Pretty Concept, Elusive Measurement”; and the issue includes an insert listing “Publications About Native Plants.”
V 10, No. 2, Winter 1997 - “Francis Kelsey... and Kelseya” by Peter Lesica is reprinted from the Volume 1, Number 2 issue; Conservation items include, “Spalding's Catchfly Proposed for 'Threatened' Listing... Still”; “Eleven New Natural & Botanical Areas Added” documents the addition of new areas in the Beaverhead/Deerlodge and Bitterroot National Forests; a winter twig quiz; and a short report on a successful project to collect “Native Grass seed from On-site – Sources,” by Bonnie Dearing.
V 10, No. 3, Summer 1997 - “A Primer on Cottonwoods” by Mike Merigliano with references; a listing of small grants proposals; an announcement of the new “Manual of Glacier Park Flora” to be written by Peter Lesica, and mostly Society news.
V 10, No. 4, Summer 1997 - This issue was not published
V 11, No. 1, Fall 1997 - Jerry DeSanto discusses the disjunct and puzzling distribution of Montana's floral emblem in "Bitterroot Dispersal in Montana and Alberta; "Montana's Hardwood Draws," are covered by Peter Lesica; "And Now... Computerized Plant Keys!!" is not attributed; Field Trip Reports cover "Woody Draws," "Peet's Hill Stroll," and "Evaro Hill"; a list of plants you "Do Not Pick!!" by Robyn Klein; and a review of Wetlands: Characteristics and Bondaries by Rich Prodgers.
V 11, No. 2, Winter 1998 -In "Revegetation on Montana's National Forests," Peter Lesica and Scott Miles report their findings regarding the proportion of native seed in revegetation seed mixes used on National Forests around Montana between 1994 and 1996; Robyn Klein reports on work by Bob Gough at MSU on cultivation of Montana mountain Vaccinium spp. (vernacular, huckleberry); Bill Elliott reflects on his mother's flower painting in, "Frances Elliott's Flower Watercolors"; an unattributed report on, "Astragalus lackschewitzii: Montana's newest endemic!"; and another "Linnaeus' Garden," an excerpt from a Swedish publication; and, finally, a notice on another volume of the Intermountain Flora series and a reprint of a fine, fun poem, "Botany Anyone."
V 11, No. 3, Spring 1998 - "Landscaping at Lewis and Clark Center Nears Completion," by Wayne Phillips; Centennial of Rydberg's and Bessey's Exploration," by Judy McCarthy; "Fungus Flowers Fool Botanist," by Peter Lesica describes a fungus that infects a rockcress with interesting consequences for buttercups and flies; "The True Carex rostrata in the American Rockies," unattributed article comparing C. rostrata with C. utriculata; "Habitat Protection for Howellia aquatilis," by Shannon Kimball; and editor Dennis Nichols reviews Old Man's Garden by Annora Brown.
V 11, No. 4, Summer 1998 - "The Boom of Echinaceae Harvesting in Eastern Montana," by Monique Kolster and Curley Youpee; a Small Grants Report by Wendy M. Belliveau discusses her findings related to, "Cryptobiotic Soil Cruss in the Sagebrush Steppe Grasslands of Western Montana"; in "Knapweed: Is There Danger in Pulling it?" Jerry Niehoff tells a rather harrowing story of losing several fingers to tumors likely resulting from barehanded pulling of knapweed; a Big Sky Sketch describing "Erigeron linearis," by Bonnie Heidel; and Jerry DeSanto reviews This is My Bitterroot by Henry Hamilton Grant.
V 12, No. 1, Fall 1998 - "Ute Ladies' Tresses Shows Up Again in Gallatin County: And Puts Airport Expansion Project on Hold," by Judy McCarthy includes detailed discussion on the identification of this threatened orchid and its evolutionary background; an accompanying excerpt from the Bozeman Chronicle explains how a "Protected Flower Stymies Airport Plans"; "Research Natural Areas Program has change in Leadership," announces the departure of Angela Evenden and assumption of duties by Steve Shelly; in "The Complex Web of Life Underground," Peter Lesica desribes the variety of native species that make their living at least in part through parasitism; "Landscaping with Native Plants: Why Should You?"; field trip reports for trips at Storm Lake, Bottle Point, Ninepipes Refuge and Indian Meadows; a Big Sky Sketch with Bonnie Heidel covers Primula alcalina, alkali primrose; Jill Davies reviews Plants of the Southern Interior British Columbia by Parish, Coupe, and Lloyd 1996; and there is a list of other publications of interest.
V 12, No. 2, Winter 1999 - “USFWS Finally Moves on Listing Spalding's Catchfly,” by Shannon Kimball gives notice of progress in an eventually successful listing petition; Susan Palermo describes the “Natives are Nice,” curriculum for grades 3 through 5 that she developed with help of the MNPS small grants program; Bonnie Heidel follows up on the previous issue's information in “Update on Ute Ladies' Tresses”; Robyn Klein describes the reasons for and solicits support a bill in the legislature at the time to govern, “Wildcrafting Native Plants,” with special concern for Echinacea angustifolium; a field trip report on “Coal Ridge Lookout,” Jean Pfeiffer describes work to restore the UM Native Plant Garden in, “Diversity on Campus: Native plant Garden at U. of M. Preserves Samples of Montana's Native Flora”; Shannon Kimball offers an update on “Water Howellia Conservation”; Big Sky Sketches describe Oregon Grape and Serviceberry in “A Plant for All Seasons,” by Carol Mackin and “Bountiful Berries” by Lois Olsen; Al Joyes reviews Plant Use by Early Montanans published by the Montana Historical Society Press; and there is a version of a poem for which Wayne Phillips has become a noted reciter “Them Botanists” by Forrest Marsh.
V 12, No. 3, Spring 1999 -In "Legislation Passed for the Sustainable Harvest of Wild Plants," Dennis Nichols, with information from Robyn Klein, reported on the difficult path followed by a bill in the Montana Legislature to protect certain native plants from the rampant commercial harvesting threatening their very existence and expressing the likelihood the bill would soon be enacted; Bonnie Heidel described what she thought may have been the first ever online field guide in, "Montana's Rare Plants on the Internet," a description of the then new NRIS guide to Montana plants of special concern; Peter Lesica described the celebration in, "UM Herbarium Celebrates 100th Anniversary"; Linda Iverson edited a longer version by Helen Atthowe on "Growing Echinacea"; and "Xeric Garden of the Montana Native Plants Garden" by Sheila Morrison and Roberta Walsh; as well as society news and other news notes.
V 12, No. 4, Summer 1999 – not published
V 13, No. 1, Fall 1999 -Note: this edition is labeled as "Summer/Autumn 1999. In a small grants report, Kathryn Warner describes the, "Native Plant Museum and Educational Collection: A Joint Project of the University of Montana and the Montana Natural History Center"; Dennis Nichols and Kathy Lloyd report, "Flora of Mount Helena Dedication"; field trip reports cover trips to the Melrose area and Bull River area where both a wildflower newly reported in Montana and a possible record Red Alder were seen; Kathy Lloyd highlighted the annual meeting; Hal Vosen presented a summary of information on, "Echinacea: The Real Flower Power," based on a presentation by Ryan Meccage at Range Days in Carter County; and Bonnie Heidel describes the place of annuals in, "Masters of Change".
V 13, No. 2, Winter 2000 -Problems with Tamarisk, Russian Olive, Lehmann Lovegrass and other invasive species are covered by Peter Lesica in, "Weeds We Invited"; pieces by Kathy Lloyd and Lisa Bay describe problems with the policy review then underway regarding use of off-highway vehicles; Robyn Klein describes the "Conservation of Medicinal Plants" and "How to make a Tincture"; and a memoriam for Warren H. "Herb" Wagner.
V 13, No. 3, Spring 2000 -Loren Bahls pays tribute to a favorite Professor in, “Jack Rumely: Wit, good humor & botanical insights”; in “Those Days on Pioneer Ridge,” Terry Divoky describes the potential perils of being a hike leader; “Hawkweeds in Montana,” first of a two-parts by Peter Rice and Sarah Wilhelm; in a Big Sky Sketch, Bonnie Heidel answers, “Cryptantha WHO?”; Dennis Nichols celebrates “Early Bloomers” in the Heron area; andn Hal Vosen reviews, Roadside Use of Native Plants, Bonnie L. Harper-Lore, editor, published by USDOT.
V 13, No. 4, Summer 2000 -In, “Are There Carnivorous Plants All Around Us?” Peter Lesica describes research into the possibility that a number of sticky species may be “protocarnivorous” plants as postulated by Charles Darwin to exist; Dennis Nichols describes Wayne Phillips's alter-ego, Meriwether Lewis in, “The Man with the Dual Personality”; “Knapweed: What Kind of Threat,” by David C. Atkins talks about possible toxins in various species and the wisdom of wearing gloves when pulling weeds; the second of two pieces on, “Hawkweeds in Montana,” by Peter Rice and Sarah Wilhelm; field trip reports cover various trips in and around the Flathead, a “Botany 'Blowout' and the Matador; the Gardner Lake Trail; and a trip to the slopes of Berray Mountain in the Cabinets; a Big Sky Sketch by Lisa Larsen covers, “Spike-Moss: Plants older than them thar hills?”; and a Small Grants Report by Jan Metzmaker on, “A Community Project: Transforming an industrial site into a native plants paradise,” in Whitefish
V 14, No. 1, Fall 2000 -Fay Benton offers, “Norse Legend Explains Kissing Under the Mistletoe”; in, “Dow Wages War on the West's Wildflowers,” Peter Lesica tells about the Conservation Committee's work to counter efforts to rid pasture lands of forbs; Dennis Nichols describes, “Life in the Subalpine Zone,” particularly that of the Cabinet Mountains; Field trip reports describe activities from one end of Montana to the other, written by Fay Benton, Larry Evans, Al Joyes, and Peter Lesica; a Big Sky Sketch by Bonnie Heidel, “In the Wake of Fire” illustrates how post-fire regrowth documentation may be used to enrich our knowledge of fire effects using data on Corydalis sempervirens; and in “Flowers in Space: Cyberspace that is!” Wayne Phillips describes the growing botanical resources he found on the internet.
V 14, Nos. 2 & 3, Winter and Spring 2001 – “Listing of Spalding's Catchfly Stalled Again” by Peter Lesica; “Carnivores Turn to Gardening – algae farming by Utricularia” by Peter Lesica; “Mountain Pink Gives Spring Wakeup Call” by Jim Habeck with a sidebar on David Douglas by Drake Barton; “Living on the Edge” – about a threatened sand dune community on the shore of Lake Kookanusa by Toby Spribille.
V 14, No. 4, Summer 2001 – “Montana Plants Travel Abroad without a Passport”, by Peter Lesica; Society President, Wayne Phillips announced the founding of the Society website through the efforts of Marilyn Marler; announcement of the enactment of a new law governing wildcrafting that is now codified in Title 76, Chapter 10 of the Montana Code Annotated as “Regulation of Wildcrafting,” sections 76-10-101 – 76-10-107; A fond set of farewell notes upon removal to Wyoming of Bonnie Heidel, inter alia artist of the Kelseya logo; Big Sky Sketches: “Champion Tree Program – Montana’s BIG Ones!” by Helen Smith.
V 15, No. 1, Fall 2001 – Robyn Klein on “Wildcrafting in Montana” and the background for 2001 Montana legislation governing the commercial practice; Kim Goodwin and Roger Sheley on the need for a plan to control “Noxious Weeds after Fire”; and a Big Sky Sketch on “Common Juniper” by Spencer Shropshire along with a key to four species.
V 15, No. 2, Winter 2002 – “Of Moss and Men” by Joe Elliot; “Wetland Plants… On the Road Again” by Peter Lesica; “Conducting Weed Risk Assessments after Wildfire” by Maria Mantas (follow-up to article in v15, no. 1); a Big Sky Sketch on “Chokecherries” by Scott Miles (includes a sidebar syrup recipe!); and a Small Grant Report, “Noxious Weeds… Bandits in our Woods: by Jami Belt.
V 15, No. 3, Spring 2002 – “Frederick Pursh and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Part 1” by H. Wayne Phillips telling how this German botanist became involved in playing a key role in documenting the botany of the expedition; “Coal Bed Methane and Plants,” plant conservation report and commentary by Clayton McCracken; “Eschew Peat, for Pete’s Sake!” by Joe Elliott, commentary on the negative impacts of peat mining with a modest proposal to substitute compost for peat in the garden; and a Big Sky Sketch on “Montana Blue Violet: More than Just a Pretty Face” by Jim Habeck telling many fascinating aspects of violet life.
V 15, No. 4, Summer 2002 – “Frederick Pursh and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Part 2” by H. Wayne Phillips completing the story started in the spring edition; “What Good is a Sterile Stamen?” by Peter Lesica discusses the birds and the bees and the genus, Penstemon: “One Man’s Weed is Another Man’s Wildflower” by Pattie Brown commenting on the relative subjectivity of weed identification and management; “Protecting our Heritage” by Kim Goodwin and Roger Sheley presents practical suggestions to help limit the spread of weeds and control weed infestation; A statement on the MNPS position on “Coal Bed Methane” by Peter Lesica; Peter Lesica comments on Society efforts to limit negative effects of exotics in “Preventing Exotic Plant Invasions.”; and a Big Sky Sketch, “Montana Asters… the Stars of Summer” by Roberta Walsh is a sort of wonderful swan song to our asters and how to distinguish among asters, fleabanes, and townsendias – at least before all the aster renaming, which Drake Barton discusses in a sidebar comment a few pages earlier on.
V 16, No. 1, Fall 2002 – “Range Extensions for Two Montana Plants” by Matt Lavin and Robyn Klein note new populations of Adoxa moshatellina and Trautvetterina caroliniensis var. borealis in the Little Belts and the Bridger Ranges respectively; “Of Moss and Men Revisited” by Joe Elliott recounts wonders of Scorpidium scorpioides and caddis flies; “Some Plants Like Fire – A Year of Post-Fire Observations” by Betty Kuropat reports observations of the aftermath of the Moose Creek Fire; “Annual ‘Exploding Car Battery’ Hike now includes flat tires” is a very model field trip report by Dennis Nichols; “Pursh’s Ultimate Irresponsibility” by Rhoda Love (Oregon Native Plant Society) follows up on Wayne Phillips’s articles in the two previous issues; a Big Sky Sketch “Showing Its True Colors… Red Osier Dogwood” by Bonnie Heidel; and a note on the MNPS outstanding service award recognizing the work of Drake Barton and Kathy Lloyd.
V 16, No. 2, Winter 2003 – In “Keeping Track – Notes on keeping an illustrated journal” Lynn Baldwin documents the fun and value of keeping an illustrated field journal; Conservation reports on several items: “The ‘Endangered’ Endangered Species Act,” “A Plant Success Story,” “Bill Filed to Remove Plants from ESA,” “MNPS Joins the Native Plant Conservation Campaign,” a sidebar on conservation facts, and “State Old Growth”; A review of Peter Lesica’s Flora of Glacier National Park by Shannon Kimball; “What Happened to the Lilies” by Robert Dorn describes reclassifications driven by new knowledge derived from molecular genetics and other observations; “Peter Lesica: Twenty years work culminates in the Flora of Glacier National Park by Dennis Nichols; “Mosses – Biological Antifreeze?” by Joe Elliott; and “About our President” an appreciation by Pattie Brown.
V 16, No. 3, Spring 2003 – “Who Says Plants Don’t Move” by Peter Lesica lets us know some ways they do; Conservation articles include “The Release of Three Native Plants Announced” i.e. seeds for reclamation and “Equal Protection for Plants” a letter by Peter Lesica; “Trillium ovatum in Western Montana – Implications for Conservation: a 2002 Small Grants Report” by Tarn Ream; A review of Sheila Morrison’s book, “The Magic of Montana Native Plants: A Gardener’s Guide to Growing over 150 Species from Seed” by Kelly Chadwick; a review of Arthur R. Kruckeberg’s “Geology and Plant Life: the Effects of Landforms and Rock Types on Plants” by Peter Lesica; and a Big Sky Sketch by Wayne Phillips on “Lewis’s Red Monkeyflower.
V 16, No. 4, Summer 2003 – “Line Creek Plateau Research Natural Area” by Steve Shelly; announcement of the official recognition of Spribille’s Groundsel; conservation articles include “Equal Protection for Plants… another view” a response to Peter Lesica’s letter in the previous issue and a discussion by Peter Lesica on “Montana’s Native Plant Society and Nursery and Landscape Association Team Up to Stop the Introduction of Invasive Plants; a review of H. Wayne Phillips’s, “Plants of the Lewis and Clark Expedition” by Joe Elliott; a field trip report by Clayton McCracken, “Trip to Bear Canyon, Pryors”; a Big Sky Sketchs, “Owl Clover Leads a Complex Life” by Jim Habeck; and a small fieldtrip report by Andrea Pipp on “Small things in the Rattlesnake.”
V 17, No. 1, Fall 2003 – “Native Plants and Agriculture… Can they Co-Exist?” by Helen Atthowe; “Dr. Rumely Honored by MNPS,” by Pat Plantenberg; a conservation report, “Montana’s National Forests… Natives and Weeds”; “Did Native Americans have use for Algae?” by Johan F. Dormaar; and a notice about a rare penstemon, P. lemhiensis previously unrecorded in the Pioneer Range having been found on an annual meeting field trip.
V 17, No. 2, Winter 2004 – “Agropyron by Any Other Name is Still a Wheatgrass” by Peter Lesica and Matt Lavin offers a great summary of the reasons botanical nomenclature seems to be in constant flux these days; in “Green Wheatgrass: Reclamation Savior or Ecological Demon,” Garth Wruck discusses the risks of wide introduction of non native species as rangeland saviors using the recent example of green wheatgrass; Kathy Lloyd penned a review of Graham Nicholls’s book Alpine Plants of North America while James K. Agee discusses, Whitebark Pine Communities: Ecology and Restoration by Tomback, Arno, and Keane; Andy Kukolax introduces his wonderful little book, Ultralight Wildflower Guide to the Central Montana Rocky Mountains; in “Fall in the Flathead,” Maria Mantas sells native plant hiking in the fall; James R. Habeck offers a biographical sketch of the University of Montana’s first botany professor in, “Joseph Edward Kirkwood: Early Montana Plant Explorer”; and Betty Kuropat reports on the water howellia interpretive signs posted near Holland Lake in “Powerful Glaciers form Tiny Wetlands for Fragile Flowers.”
V 17, No. 3, Spring 2004 – “Tree Planting Group Makes Commitment to Native Plants” by Janet Ellis; an announcement of the Montana Plant Life website that describes its creator, Jan Hjallmarsson; a book review by Bonnie Heidel of A Region of Astonishing Beauty written by Roger L. Williams that covers the history of early botanical exploration in the mountain west; plus a full complement of Society news.
V 17, No. 4, Summer 2004 – “Trillium ovatum in Western Montana – Implications for Conservation,” a small grants report by Tarn Ream reports fascinating life cycle facts about this beautiful spring wildflower; a moving description of the type specimens collected in Montana on the Lewis and Clark expedition that were on display in Helena; “Asters Retreat to Eurasia,” by Robert Dorn, reprinted from the WNPS newsletter Castelleja describes classification changes within the traditional Aster genus with discussion of Eucephalus, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Symphyotrichum, and Almutaster with references.
V 18, No. 1, Fall 2004 – “A Little Mustard that Looks for Land Mines,” by Peter Lesica about a genetically modified form of Thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, that turns red when its roods are exposed to nitrogen dioxide; “SW Montana Plant Surveys Yield New Finds,” by Sue Crispin reporting on the documentation of 48 new occurrences of species of concern on BLM lands in Beaverhead and Madison Counties; Kathy Lloyd and Drake Barton reviewed “The Story of the Bitterroot: a cross cultural odyssey of discovery,” a DVD by Looking Glass Films directed by Steve Slocomb; “Marilyn Marler Receives Outstanding Service Award,” by Kathy Lloyd and Peter Lesica; A Big Sky Sketches piece on Western Redcedar, Thuja plicata, by Jim Habeck; “Peatlands Need Bigger Buffers to Protect Species,” by the Heritage Program; and an appreciation of Harvey and Sheila Bjornlie and Aquilegia jonesii, “The 1995 T-shirt… a real fashion statement by Patrick Plantenberg.
V 18, No. 2, Winter 2005 – In “Riparian Forests of the Upper Missouri Wild and Scenic River,” Greg Kudray reports on changes that have taken place within plains cottonwood gallery forests along the Missouri river with emphasis on the role of smooth brome and Russian olive in these areas; Kathy Lloyd reported that the Montana Noxious Weed List Advisory Committee had met and recommended addition of a new Category 4 Watch List to the Administrative Rules of Montana; Kathy Lloyd also reviewed, Trails of the Wild Selkirks South of the Canadian Border by Dennis Nichols; and Big Sky Sketches focused on Jim Habeck’s “Reflections on Bitterroot” wherein he discusses the hypothesis that horse pastures used by native populations resulted in substantial increases in bitterroot populations as the grazing reduced bunchgrass competition.
V 18, No. 3, Spring 2005 – "Pollinators and Predators" by Peter Lesica describes the life and death drive among various species that use wildflowers; Dee Strickler reports on "Orchid Seed Longevity"; H. Wayne Phillips describes the discovery of a mislabeled specimen in "Prunus pennsylvanica at the Lewis and Clark Herbarium; a Small Grand Report, "A community partnership: native plant gardening and education" by Liz Bezkiewicz and Marilyn Marler; and in "Are Spring Flowers Blooming Earlier in Montana: Two Concepts Presented" 1) Jim Habeck compares the observation of early flowering buttercups in 2005 with records of a similar phenomenon in 1934, and 2) Sharon Eversman discusses the importance of building phonological records to interpret what may be happening.
V 18, No. 4, Summer 2005 -- Kelly Chadwick in “UM Native Plant Gardeners Honored,” tells of a gathering appreciating the effort of 6 dedicated volunteers who rescued the native plant garden on the UM campus from decline and worked to establish it as the educational resource it is today; Mark Majerus offers practical suggestions for “Landscaping with Native Grasses;” Sue Habeck links Beatrix Potter to field botany in “Rabbits and Lichen, Oh My;” in “MONTU Awarded National Science Foundation Grant, Peter Lesica and Elizabeth Crone tell about the bioinformatics program designed to update and digitize information on the 72,000 items in the UM herbarium and the significance of the project; Wildflowers of Montana by Donald Anthony Schiemann is reviewed by Drake Barton and Kathy Lloyd; Shannon Kimball announced the opening of the “Krause Basin Interpretive Trail;” and “Knapweed Crash!” by Carol Flaherty an MSU news service reprint.
V 19, No. 1, Fall 2005 – “The Da Vinci Code in Gardening,” by Steven Bartlett (reprinted from the Salem Hardy Plant Society) discusses the Finonacci sequence in plants and explains how it is a secret of efficiency; “Plant Profile: Prairie Coneflower,” by Susan R. Winslow, PMC Agronomist (reprinted from Plant Materials Today) nicely describes this plant and tells about the seed that has been made commercially available through the Bridger Plant Materials Center; Annie Garde and Diane Hafeman review, Wildflowers of Glacier National Park and Surrounding Areas by Shannon Fitzpatrick Kimball and Peter Lesica; Vicky Lawrence offers a Small Grant Report: “Flower Creek Restoration Project”; the Awards Committee reported, and “Al Joyes Receives the MNPS Outstanding Service Award”. This issue also includes some really great field trip reports.
V 19, No. 2 Winter 2006 – Confused about G5/S1 or G2/S5? – Scott Mincemoyer describes the background of these ratings in, “Montana Plant Species of Concern: from Acorus americanus to Zizia aurea”; a role is ascribed for Castilleja spp. in the blister rust life cycle in, “Rocky Mountain Research Station Pathology Group at Moscow Identifies New North American Alternate Hosts in the Life Cycle of the White Pine Blister Rust Fungus”; Catherine A. Schloeder and Betty Kuropat review D. Linnell Blank’s lovely and informative book, Montana Wildflowers; Linda Iverson prescribes the use of “Natives in the Winter Garden”; in a reprint from the Oregon NPS bulletin, Rhoda Love tells us, “’Mt. Fops’ Pussy-toes, or Why Study the Lives of Historic Botanists?”; Cathie Jean and Jay Frederick highlight, “Common Snowberry, Decorative White Fruit” Erich Pfalzer contributes an informative piece, “Plants of Subalpine Parks with Peter Lesica – a Field Trip Report”; and “More on Prairie Coneflower” is offered by Linda Iverson along with a note from Wayne Phillips’s Central Rocky Mountain Wildflowers.
V 19, No. 3, Spring 2006 – “Water Moves in Mysterious Ways” by Peter Lesica links evapotranspiration, hydraulic lift, and leaky surface roots among several native plants (with references); in “Auspicious Beginnings,” Rebecca Durham tells of the joys of restoring native plants in the garden; “Early Bloomers” buttercups in January; “My Favorite Garden Plants,” from Sheila Morrison includes Douglasia montana, Phlox kelseyi var. missoulensis, and Lomatium cous; in “Jove’s Buttercup Found in the Pryors,” Clayton McCracken describes a range extending find of Ranunculus jovis; and a great deal of Society news and notes.
V 19, No. 4, Summer 2006 – “Focus on Valley Nursery: Cold Hardy Natives from the Helena Valley,” by Patrick Plantenberg & Kathy Lloyd focuses on nurseryman, Clayton Berg and his methods of plant selection; in “Spread a Little Bit of Love,” Dennis Nichols credits his teacher, Dr. Michael Britton, for fostering his love of plants and entreats us to pass the love along including great information about glacier lily, Erythronium grandiflorum, along the way; Clayton McCracken notes observations of dead Kelseya uniflora tufts in on Sykes Ridge in the Pryor Mountains in “Is the Kelseya Dying?”; Jim Habeck documents the conflict between Morton Elrod and the copper industry in, “Can Botanists Be Bought? – Professor Joseph W. Blankinship: ‘Professional Witness’”; and in “What’s a Tree to do? – Interactions between nutcrackers, squirrels, and bird-dispersed pines,” by Adam M. Siepielski (reprinted from the Castelleja) reports on the way natural selection has increased variation in pine cone morphology mostly in limber pines.
V 20, No. 1, Fall 2006 – “The Best Source of Biomass will be Fields with Diverse Plant Species,” by Deane Morrison, reprinted from University of Montana News; “Release of 2006 IUCN Red List reveals ongoing decline in status of plants and animals,” by the IUCN; H. Wayne Phillips reviews, “Undaunted Botany: Lewis and Clark’s Search for Plants,” by Kathy Lloyd and Drake Barton published in the July-August issue of Montana Outdoors; “Montana Conservation Assessment for Spalding’s Catchfly – Available from the Natural Heritage Program” is reprinted from Optimolocus; the outstanding service award went to Patrick Plantenberg; “Fabulous, Fantastic, Frasera Facts” by Kelly Chadwick details interesting information about the 2006 annual meeting mascot plant; and field trip reports include “Black Butte” and “Bighorn Mountain” reports from the annual meeting and “Stylin’ and Goodyer’n in the Little Belt Mountains” “Artemisia Chapter on the Beartooth Plateau” by Dave Hanna, Peter Lesica, Kelly Chadwick, and Clayton McCracken respectively.
V 20, No. 2, Winter 2007 – The opening headline, “MNPS Celebrates 20 Years!” sets the theme for this issue, which begins with two reprint articles about Kelseya uniflora (Watson) Rydberg and Francis Duncan Kelsey; “20 Years of Native Plant Conservation” by Peter Lesica reviews successful MNPS involvement in conservation over its history; Cathie Jean reviewed the “Small Grant Program”; Linda Iverson presents, “The Landscape and Revegetation Committee… a Growing Legacy”; in “Phylogenetic position of Kelseya based on molecular data,” Dan Potter and Shannon Still document their work to clarify the relationships among members of the Spirea tribe of the Rose family with special attention to the position of Petrophyton and Kelseya; and chapter reports review their 20-year histories.
V 20, No. 3, Spring 2007 – Lodgepole Pine ecology is summarized by Peter Lesica in “Stuck Between a Squirrel and a Hot Place”; Linda Iverson focuses on, “Westscape Wholesale Nursery: Native and Adapted Plants for the Northern Rockies”; H. Wayne Phillips summarizes a couple of articles: one from Science News on genome sequencing in “Montana’s Black Cottonwood is Deciphered” and another, “New Native Grass Harvester” about a new seed harvester invented in Montana and reported in the Great Falls Tribune; and in “Daunted by Wolves? Try Native Plants!” by Caroline Sime suggests the contemplative relief offered by attention to our native plants.
V 20, No. 4, Summer 2007 – “MNPS 20 Years Old! The Rest of the Story,” by Peter Lesica with help from Kathy Ahlenslager and Virginia Vincent, a history of the Society’s founding is reprinted from the Vol. 10, No. 1 issue; “Wyoming’s New Seed Law,” by Richard Dunne is reprinted from the May 2007 issue of the Castilleja; Annie Garde reviews Beth Judy’s book, Medicinal Plants of North America: A Flora Delaterre Coloring Book; in “Montana Takes a Closer Look at Threats to Rare Plants,” Mel Waggy reports on follow-up work to the 2008 Montana Plant Conservation Conference; and a book review reprinted from the Castilleja discusses Growing Native Plants of the Rocky Mountain Area by Robert D. Dorn and Jane L. Dorn.
V 21, No. 1, Fall 2007 – Karen Shelly profiles the, “Blackfoot Native Plants Nursery: Montana plants grown in Missoula County’s Potomac Valley”; reports on awards given to long-time MNPS members Betty Kuropat and Peter Stickney; “Home on the Range Small Grant Report” by Linda Iverson describes this Billings-based project; Dwight Tober describes, “Myths Concerning Native Grass Varieties”; field trip reports are: “Windy Ridge RNA” and “West Fork Buttes Botanical Area”; “Species of Concern Found at Georgetown Lake” describes finding a large population of Thalictrum alpinum on Camp Watanopa; and there are summer field trip reports: “Big Snowies/Matador Ranch”; “Camp Creek Offers Bitterroot & Moose”; and “Indian Meadows Research Natural Area.”
V 21, No. 2, Winter 2008 – In “Windflower Native Plant Nursery: Re-establishing Native Plants in Northwest Montana,” Betty Kuropat reports on MNPS member Terry Divoky’s native plant business at the edge of Glacier National Park; Peter Lesica offers some cautionary information in “Will Plants Run Your Car?” and includes references; Jen Asebrook offers a Small Grant Report: “Children’s House Montessori School”; in “Linear-Leaf Moonwort Removed from List,” Drake Barton reports on removal of this plant from the national endangered species candidate list; in an opinion piece, Don Heinze documents an extensive list of sensitive species to be found in the Pryor Mountains, which he calls a “botanical gem,” in “Beartooth Travel Management DEIS”; and Drake Barton reviews the new Montana Heritage Program online field guide: “New Field Guide”.
V 21, No. 3, Spring 2008 – "Zen & the Art of Seed Marketing" by Susan Winslow describes Rick and Claire Dunne's multi-year effort to establish the Wind River Seed company and its sale to Russ Hozhäuser; "Dispatches from the Montana Plant Conservation Conference" by Linh Hoang, Peter Lesica, and Kathy Lloyd reviews the 5th such conference held in Bozeman; "Project Budburst" announces the initiation of this citizen science undertaking; and plenty of MNPS business announcements.
V 21, No. 4, Summer 2008 – In the native plant nursery series, Debbie Mueller documents establishment of Catherine Cain's Southwest Montana Native Landscapes, LLC in "Celebrating Natives,"; and "New Category Added to Montana Noxious Weed List" by Kathy Lloyd reports on the inclusion of Category 4, Watch List, to Montana's Noxious Weed List and changes in species categorizations.
V 22, No. 1, Fall 2008 – Peter Lesica describes why “MNPS and Audubon Petition to list Russian Olive as a Noxious Weed,”; in “Robert Dorn – Award Winning Botanist,” Walter Fertig, Peter Lesica, and Betty Kuropat review Dorn’s professional accomplishments and his receipt of the MNPS Special Achievement Award; “Bringing Nature Home: How Native Plants Sustain Wildlife in our Gardens” is a review of Douglas Tallamy’s book or that title; Steve Shelly offers, “Carlton Ridge Research Natural Area: Field Trip Report and Status Update”; the issue recaps the successful annual meeting at Hyalite Lake including trip reports; a trip report, “Sweetgrass Hills Spelunking” and Jim Habeck penned “A Tribute to Mark Behan: 1931 to 2008."
V 22, No. 2, Winter 2009 – “Winter Botany” by Peter Lesica and Annie Garde, reprinted from Montana Naturalist introduces the potential joys and techniques of botanizing on the winter landscape; and “Is Sheep Grazing Good for Native Plants?” is a question addressed by the Clark Fork Chapter and here addressed by Peter Lesica reporting on a research project in the Missoula north hills.
Volume 22, No. 3, Spring 2009 - "Montana's Threatened Plants Need Your Help" by Peter Lesica; High and Dry: Gardening with Cold-Hardy Dryland Plants (Robert Nold, Timber Press, 2008) By Kelly Chadwick, Sheila Morrison and Mike Young; "MNPS Member Mapping Flora in Madagascar" By Debbie Mueller; "Pollinator Wars: How leafy spurge affects bees & native plants" By Jennifer Palladini, 2008 MNPS Small Grant Recipient; "Grower Profile: First Creek Seeds" By Tim Connolly and Beth Madden, Maka Flora Chapter.
Volume 22, No. 4, Summer 2009 - "Blackfoot Botanist: Annie Mad Plume Wall," by Rosaly La Pier;"In Praise of Poaceae," by Leah Grunzke; "Native Gardens and Native Animals," by Peter Lesica; Notes about Maria Mantas and Jerry DeSanto, 2009 MNPS honorees and current chapter and society news.
Volume 23, No. 1, Fall 2009 - The Fall 2009 issue includes: Several articles remembering Dennis Nicholls: "Before Columbus" by Dennis Nicholls; "In Memoriam," by H. Wayne Phillips; remembrances by Steve Shelly, Kathy Lloyd, and Peter Lesica, and a poem by Dennis. Also included is an excerpt from Dakota Flora: "Chokecherry: An American Legend" and current society news.
Volume 23, No. 2, Winter 2010 - An analysis of the early, sudden, hard freeze experienced in October 2009 written by Paul Alaback; "Teaching Gardens," by Leah Grunzke; and an article on "Dodder," by Peter Lesica. Also included in the mailed edition were fliers on the 2010 Montana Plant Conservation Conference and The MNPS Small Grants program - you can link to information on these subjects on this website.
Volume 23, No. 3, Spring 2010 - The Spring 2010 issue includes: "Montana's First Important Plant Area," by Tara Carolin and Karen Shelly;"Consider the Dandelion Before You Dig," by Peter Lesica; Notices about the 2009 Small Grants Recipients; and all sorts of Society news, the ballots for the election, and registration information for the annual meeting coming up in Southwest Montana.
Volume 23, No. 4, Summer 2010 - A biographical article on Frederick Pursh written by Walter Fertig, "What's in a Name, Pursh and Purshia." An article by Patrick Cross discusses, "Bladderpod: A Study in Diversity." And Sheila Morrison highlights a new source for native seeds in, "Native Ideals Seed Company: Bryce Christiaens and Rebecca Shoemaker."
Volume 24, No. 1, Fall 2010 "Dendroctonus the Destroyer: How pine beetles are changing the face of North American forests" by Diana L. Six; "Ripening" from Walking in the Beauty of the World: Reflections of a Northwest Botanist by Joseph Arnett; Chapter News and event schedules; a summary of Annual Meeting events, and Society News and Notes.
Volume 24, No. 2, Winter 2011 "Halting an Invader - Russian Olive Finally is Regulated in Montana" by Peter Lesica and Kathy Lloyd; "Can Sheep Control Leafy Spurge without Compromising Efforts to Restore Native Plants?" Small Grant Report By Eva Masin; "A Tribute to Erwin Evert, 1940-2010" By Walter Fertig (reprinted from the Castelleja; "What Good Are Awns?" By Peter Lesica; and "Montana Plants Need Citizen Scientists" By Peter Lesica as well as current Society and Chapter news and events listings.
Web extra - space limitations prevented inclusion of this interview by Phil White of his interview with Bob Lichvar on his memories of Ervin Evert. Click here to open a .PDF file with that interview.
Volume 24, No. 3, Spring 2011 "Phenology Report: Flowers Coming Earlier." by Peter Lesica; "Awn Addendum," letter from Al Scharen; MNPS Annual Meeting promotion by Beth Madden.
Volume 24, No. 4, Summer 2011 "Trillium ovatum in Western Montana - Implications for Conservation" by Tarn Ream revised and updated version of a 2004 article; Small Grant Report: "Finding a Home for Native Plants on Agricultural Lands" by Gina Raicovich; "A Tale of Two Peripatetic Penstemaniacs" an appreciation of Dr. Dee Strickler by Claire Strickler; "Memories of Dee Strickler" by Terry Divoky; In an "Important Plant Areas Update" Peter Lesica discusses the addition of Big Sheep Creek Basin, Centennial Sandhills, and St. Mary Peak to the list of important plant areas and the continuing study for possible inclusion of the Powderville Road - Hell Creek Formation area; and all the regular features on Society news and activities.
Volume 25, No. 1, Fall 2011 Issue highlights include: "A Weed is a Weed is a Weed?: Montana researchers unearthing secrets of invasive ecology" by Leah Grunzke reprinted from the fall 2011 issue of the Montana Naturalist; "Annual Meeting Highlights: Sunshine and Blossoms at 'Needmore Prairie'," by Beth Madden; a book note on books for native plant lovers about a new edition of Prairie: A Natural History by Candace Savage (Greystone Books, 2011: www.candacesavage.ca); and "First American Prairie Reserve BioBlitz: 480 Species in 24 Hours" by Michael Wainwright reprented from APR news.
V 25, No. 2, Winter 2012 “Wildflower Photography Techniques” by Steve Hegji adapted from a series first published in Sego Lily, the Utah Native Plant Society Newsletter, includes links to additional information; “How Does Your Garden Grow,” by Kathy Settevendemie announces a new native plant garden recognition program; “Citizen Scientists Needed,” tells how to find plant species of concern in any county and use it to gather information to help land managers prioritize conservation actions; and in a Small Grant Report, Bonnie Streeter of Glacier High School discusses their native plant garden in, “It Takes a Village: Glacier High School Native Garden.”
V 25, No. 3, Spring 2012 In “Diatoms: Montana's Other Native Plants,” Loren Bahls describes diatoms, their classification, and habitats in addition to reporting the identification of several new species with some interesting Montana-based names – includes references; “Herbaria Images Online: Major New Web Resource Available,” by Matt Lavin describes a new online service allowing access to data from a number of Pacific Northwest herbaria and tells of some powerful ways to use the feature; “MNPS Plant Conservation Conference Highlights,” by Peter Lesica; and “Russian Scientists Revive Ice-Age Flower.”
V 25, No. 4, Summer 2012 "How Lupines Talk to Bees," by Peter Lesica describes how color changes help maximize the efficient interaction between pollinators and flowers; the availability of the new Manual of Montana Vascular Plants, by Peter Lesica with contributions from M. Lavin and P.F. Stickney is announced; and David Schmetterling differentiates the effectiveness of native pollinators and honey bees in, "As Pollinators for a Native Plant Garden, Honey Bees Suck".
V 26, No. 1, Fall 2012 – Peter Lesica reports on the Pine Butte Peatlands and the South Pryor Mountains areas in an, “Important Plant Areas Update” (an error in descibing the location of this IPA nomination is corrected here); Clark Fork chapter provides a comprehensive Annual Meeting wrap-up; Annie Garde's punny piece, “Prairie Rose and the Scourge of Lake Weed-be-Gone” is reproduced; a Small Grant Report by Sarah Dawe describes the “White Sulphur Springs Pollinator Garden;” an article by Walter Fertig reprinted from the Utah Native Plant Society's Sego Lily gives a profile of “Mountain Avens: Little Nymph of the Alpine;” and plenty of MNPS news for you. In connection with the notice about the Pryor Mountains important plant area included in Peter Lesica's article noted above, MNPS has just now uploaded to its online archive of botanical literature the following: Pryor Mountain Desert: A Montana Native Plant Society Naturalist's Guide, by Donald H. Heinze with Mark Taylor, c. 1994 and a copy of a typed manuscript, “Pryor Mountain Mini Key .” Many thanks to Wendy Velman, Botany Program Lead, BLM MT/DK, Montana State Office for digging these up and making the copies available. Note: the mailed copy of the newsletter included an attachment of Society Officers. Current officer information is available online in the Board of Directors area on this site.
V 26, No. 2, Winter 2013 – In an article from the Washington Native Plant Society, Joseph Arnett shares observation on, "The Sounds of Botany"; an "In Memoriam," for Dr. John H. "Jack" Rumely; Native Plant Profiles on "Juniper," by Spencer Shropshire and "Common Snowberry," by Cathie Jean and Jay Frederick; Chantelle Bournay and Linda Lyon present a 2012 Small Grant Report on, "Native Plant Learning Garden Supports a Community"; and an article on "Wild Strawberries," by Aaron Liston and adapted by Peter Lesica.
V 26, No. 3, Spring 2013 – In an MNPS Small Grant Report, Edith Dooley describes her research on "Mountain Pine Beetle & Whitebark Pine"; Clare Beelman and Kelly Chadwick tell how a "Subalpine Garden Honors Peter Lesica," on the UM campus; Mel Waggy reviews Peter Lesica's new book in "A Botanist's Testimony: 'Manual of Montana Vascular Plants' a Keeper"; Walter Fertig encourages "plant watching" in "Have You Started your Plant Life List?"; Linda Lyon announces that, "2013 MNPS Small Grant Awards Focus on Botanical Research"; and plenty of society news. Inserts mailed to member included an annual meeting registration form, an election ballot, and a copy of the society's 2013 budget.
V 26, No. 4, Summer 2013 - Celestine Duncan describes, "Invasive Eurasian Watermilfoil: A Threat to Montana's Waters; in "Botanist's Bookshelf," Anne Garde of the Clark Fork Chapter reviews Alpine Plants of the Northwest by Jim Pojar and Andy MacKinnon and Trees and Flowering Shrubs of Glacier national Park and Surrounding Areas by Shannon Kimball and Peter Lesica; "Late Bloomer" Trailblazing 18th Century Woman Botanist Finally Honored with Namesake" by Ferris Jabr is reprinted from Scientific American, January 5, 2012; Jane Horton of the Kelsey Chapter describes Blue grama grass in "Keep Your Eye on the Eyebrow"; and that is followed by a little "Poaceae Prep" that serves as a little pretest of your grass knowledge ahead of the annual meeting.
Volume 27 (2013-2014)
V 27 1, Fall 2013 – Mark Eggers details the passion and reward associated with documenting the new species of paintbrush, which he named Castilleja kerryana, found by Pete Lesica and Dave Hanna in the Scapegoat Wilderness; Peter Lesica answers, "Why are Plants are Giving You a Buzz?"; Kathy Lloyd reports on a successful annual meeting, "A Little Botany in the Little Belts" and on awards presented to Janet Ellis and Bob Person at that meeting; Western At-Large representative, Jon Reny, reported on a summer field trip to Flatiron Mountain; Society President Kathy Settevendemie and Membership Chair Cathy Jean include important notes on the business of our Society and the importance of membership affiliation; an abridged version of a letter sent by the Conservation Committee to the USDA urging caution in the introduction of exotics (the full letter is linked from the Plant Conservation page of the Society Website) is included; Kathy Lloyd presents a small grant report on the installation of a native plant garden next to the library on the Carroll College Campus in Helena; and a new round of Small Grant Applications is solicited (see also the Small Grants Page on this website for all the details.)
V 27 2, Winter 2014 – Peter Lesica elucidates how some plants use their sybiotic partners as hit men and other micro surprises and suggestions for further reading in his article, "Natural History: Plants Defend their Fungal Friends"; Jessie Salix describes the July "Botany Blitz" to monitor the Lemhi Penstemon sponsored by the Calypso Chapter in, "Canvassing the Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest" – the data report mentioned in the article is available here; Kelseya editor Caroline Kurtz tells about a revegetation project at Mill Dam in "Dam Bear Grass" and suggests an opportunity for future projects; Patrick Plantenberg offers an informative and punny report on the educational opportunity held in conjunction with the 2013 Annual Meeting in, "Lemma Tell Ya About the Grass Class"; and Small Grant Reports include Kathy Heffernan's, "Weed Control on Mount Sentinel" and Mandy Slate's, "Leaky Moss".
V 27 3, Spring 2014 – In "Kelseya Revisited: MNPS 'Mascot' A State Treasure," Editor Caroline Kurtz reprises Peter Lesica's treatment of our plant symbol; Robin Taylor-Davenport describes USFS work to raise awareness of the importance of pollinators and the discussion of this subject at the most recent Montana Native Plant Conservation conference in "Forest Management Resting on the Wings of Pollinators;" Karen Shelly penned an appreciation of the long and excellent service to the Society and the Kelsey Chapter of Kathy Lloyd in, "Kathy Lloyd: We'll Miss Your Hard Work and Dedication;" fascinating information on Canada bunchberry and Twisted Stalk is included in a couple of reprints written by Kimberly Gould ("Potent Pollen Propulsion!" from the Albert Native Plant Council, Iris) and Walter Fertig (Twisted Stalk from the Utah Native Plant Society, Sego Lily); and here you may also find Society news, financial information, this year's ballot, and registration information for the annual meeting.
V 27 4, Summer 2014 – A reprinted article, "Western Clematis, Clingy Native," written by Cathie Jean and Jay Frederick originally appeared in a series on native plants originally published in the Helena's newspaper, The Independent Record, under the guidance of the Kelsey Chapter of MNPS; New "apps" for various mobile devices are announced in, "Botany Resources: New from High Country Apps of Bozeman, MT" and also "Montana Grasses"; "Calypso Chapter Members Take to the Streets in Dillon," by Catherine Cain describes a street beautification project in Dillon using native plants in a street median planting; "In Memorian: Wally E. Albert," was compiled by the Kelseya editor Caroline Kurtz and "Recollections of a Field Companion" by Craig Odegard further memorializes Wally Albert; and "Nodding Onion" by Andrea Pipp and "Chokecherries" are further native plant discussion reprints from the Independet Record.
Volume 28 (2014 -2015)
V 28 1, Fall 2014 – Jenny Tollefson features Toothcup Rotala ramosior, Columbia Water-meal Wolffia columbiana, and Shining Flatsedge Cyperus bipartatus in, "Thriving in an Unlikely Place;" Peter Lesica and Jony Reny present field trip reports on Pyramid Pass, Nurses Lake (part of the annual meeting), and the Annual Exploding Battery hikes; Gretchen Rupp recaps the Annual Meeting at Pine Creek along with Patrick Plantenberg's story about, "Grasses Have Class" and a photo gallery; in the context of a Small Grants Report, two essays by students involved the the Waterworks Hill (Missoula) Weed Control Project discuss their findings; Kathy Lloyd's article, "Rocky Mountain Maple: A Sweet Shrub" is reprinted from a series in Helena's Independent Record and includes more than just Acer glabrum; plus plenty of Chapter news as usual.
V 28 2, Winter 2015 – "Wild Mountain Heather," by Dana Visalli reprinted from the Methow Natualist in Washington State discusses plant-fungus symbiosis in a number of plant species as well as some interesting characteristics of several members of the Ericaceae; the "2015 Annual Meeting: For Peat's Sake... Befriend the Fens!" is announced by Marilyn Reynolds, Betty Kuropat, and Chantelle DeLay of the Flathead Chapter; a 2014 Small Grands Report, in "Growing Prgrams at the Fort Missoula Native Plant Garden," Lisa Bickell and Christine Morris relate the success of this garden to the larger mission of the Montana Natural History Center there; in a "Conservation Corner Update," Peter Lesica describes some of the issues around the importation of exotic plants by the USDA; Peter Lesica also tells a lot about the relationships between wild and domestic strawberries in, "Strawberries: More Interesting than Just Jam," Jim Habeck reviews some recent research he did that was made possible by powerful search tools now available as, "UM Herbarium Database Makes Searches Easy," and encourages other researchers to take advantage; and the issue includes an announcement that a new publication, "Montana Lichens: An Annotated List," is now available.
V 28 3, Spring 2015 – Steve Shelly discusses some of the unique ecological characteristics of the Swan Valley in, "Botanical Treasures in the Swan Valley: A preview of the MNPS Annual Meeting"; Kathy Settevendemie tells about "Celebrating Peter Stickney" for his many years of dedication to the legacies represented in the UM Herbarium today; Anne Garde describes the 2015 Small Grant Awards made in February; Jennifer Lyman describes management challenges and resource guides available for potential visitors in, "Promoting the Pryors"; In "A Montana Spring Beauty," Kathy Settevendemie describes Arrowleaf Balsamroot – truly a "spring beauty" of a different shape; and plenty of chapter and society news.
Volume 29 (2015 - 2016)
V 29 1, Fall 2015 - "Confessions from a Huckleberry Enthusiast," by Montana Native Plant Society Lifetime Member, Mel Waggy, offers a thorough discussion of a range of interesting issues surrounding the genus Vaccinium; Jon Reny and Jennifer Lyman share "Summer Field Trip Highlights"; Gretchen Rupp tells about a new garden installation in, "MSU Installs New Pollinator Garden"; A notice adapted from an article by Mark Schiltz of the Montana Land Reliance tells about the "Tour of the Cedars" held in June in the Ninemile Valley near Missoula; Tara Carolin and Terry Divoky of the Flathead Chapter of the Montana Native Plant Society report on MNPS awards given this summer to Rachel Potter and Mary and Gary Sloan; and Betty Kuropat reports on the Annual Meeting.
V 29 2, Winter 2016. "Ten Thing You Might Not Know About Ferns, But Wish You Did," by Walter Fertig is reprinted from the Sprint 2015 issue of Sego Lily presents a good summary of fern anatomy, reproductive function, and recent learning about genetic relationships among similar groups; Peter Lesica reports on recent work of the Conservation Committee in, "MNPS Continues to Engage ARS on Exotic Plants; Jenny Tollefson reports on her experiment in making syrup from the sap of her backyard Norway Maple in Missoula; Daniel Tinker's review of PONDEROSA: People, Fire, and the West's Most Iconic Tree,by Carl Fiedler and Stephen Arno recomends this treatment of Montana's state tree in an article reprinted from the Castilleja; and plenty of Society and Chapter news and events.
V 29 3, Spring 2016. Peter Lesica opens this issue with "Focus on Genetics," a report on the 2016 Plant Conservation Conference and, "Approved: Two More Important Plant Areas for Montana," announcing the addition of the DutchmanWetlands IPA and the Italian Peaks IPA; all the information you need to know about the 2016 Annual Meeting including schedule and registration information and By-Laws updates for adoption at the meeting; information about candidates for Montana Native Plant Society Officer positions; Betty Kuropat of the Small Grants Commttee describes this year's small grants award projects; in an article reprinted from Yellowstone Dicovery, Beth Pratt-Bergstrom of the National Wildlife Federation discusses, "The Geology of Wildflowers," with particular emphasis on Yellowstone National Park; and plenty of Society news and wise words from our Society President.
V 29 4, Summer 2016. Kelseya editor, Caroline Kurtz, has chosen selections from a natural history piece on Botanical Natural History from "Dakota Flora: A Seasonal Sampler," by David J. Ode featuring plants that may be found in Montana as well as South Dakota: Ipomoea leptophylla, Monarda fistulosa, and Buchloe dactyloides; Rachel Potter announces a "Whitebark Pine Management Conference" in Whitefish to be held September 16 – 18 with a link to www.whitebarkfound.org for more information and to register; and Society news and events.
Volume 30 (2016 - 2017)