Montana Species of Concern Threat Assignment

Preliminary Threat Assignments for Montana Species of Concern

The Montana Interagency Plant Threats Assessment Committee was formed in 2006 at the Montana Plant Conference in Helena to assess threats and assign threat rankings to Montana Plant Species of Concern. Prior to and following this meeting, information on threats to individual species was collected from botanists, ecologists and natural resource professionals from around the state. Information gathered for each species included the severity, scope and immediacy of each listed threat. These data were then summarized and analyzed by the Committee in several meetings in 2006 and 2007, and a proposed threat ranking system was developed.

Data collected for each species characterized the severity, scope and immediacy for each threat as high, moderate, low, or insignificant. Threats data were received for approximately 70% of the plants on the MTNHP Species of Concern list. These plants were tentatively assigned one of the following four ranks in February, 2007 based on the following definitions:

  • Category 1 (Highly Threatened) Associated threat(s) has caused or could cause a major reduction of the state population or habitat that will require 50 years or more for recovery, and 20% or more of the state population has been or will be affected, and the threat is likely to occur within 5 years or less.
  • Category 2 (Threatened) Associated threat(s) exist but are not as severe, wide-ranging or immediate as for Category 1.
  • Category 3 (Insignificant Threats or No Threats Known) Either, no known threats, or "Severity" or "Scope" is rated as insignificant.
  • Not Ranked was assigned to those species that have not yet been ranked due to lack of information or conflicting information.

Impacts or potential effects associated with global climate change or global warming were not considered in this assessment.

If you wish to contribute information please read the instructions and fill out the downloadable form. (Form is MS Word document.)

Summary of threat rankings.

  • 243 Species Originally Assessed:
  • 25 (10%) ranked Category 1 (Highly Threatened)
  • 65 (27%) ranked Category 2 (Threatened)
  • 138 (57%) ranked as Category 3 (Insignificant Threats or No Threats Known)
  • 15 (6%) not ranked due to insufficient or conflicting information

Current (as of February 2018) rankings are presented below with species grouped by Threat Level.

Following each species in Category 1, Category 2 and those Not Ranked are the specific threats to each species identified from information submitted by botanists, ecologists and natural resource professionals. A list of threats and their associated codes can be found at the end of the document. For additional information concerning each species, click to visit the online Montana Field Guide.

A copy of the original "threats database" is available for download in MS Excel format. This spreadsheet contains the assigned threat ranks, as well as the data submitted for each species which was used to assign an initial rank. (In late February 2018, about 30 changes were made to this list to reflect current Floristic Treatments as reflected in Lesica et. al. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants, BRIT press, 2012, plus to reflect a few species that were removed from the list either because they are no longer a Species of Concern or they are not recognized as valid species any longer. For a comparative list prepared by Scott Mincemoyer, click here.)

Category 1 Species (Highly Threatened)

Arctostaphylos patula - 5, 19
Astragalus oreganus - 2, 12, 16
Athysanus pusillus - 8, 13, 22
Boechera fecunda - 3, 5, 8, 12
Brickellia oblongifolia – 12
Carex comosa – 6
Carex sychnocephala - 5, 6
Cirsium longistylum - 8, 26, 27
Cypripedium fasciculatum - 28, 19, 27
Glossopetalon spinescens (G. Nevadense) - 13, 20, 22
Grindelia howellii - 5, 8, 12, 27
Idahoa scapigera - 8, 13, 22
Oxytropis campestris var. Columbiana – 5
Pedicularis crenulata – 1
Physaria carinata – 8
Physaria lesicii – 2
Primula alcalina - 2, 6, 27
Quercus macrocarpa – 17
Ranunculus orthorynchus - 8, 13
Senecio amplectens – 22
Sidalcea oregana - 8, 22
Silene spaldingii - 2, 5, 8, 9
Triniteurybia aberrans - 13, 20, 22

Category 2 Species (Threatened)

Astragalus barrii - 3, 8, 18
Astragalus ceramicus var. apus - 9, 12
Astragalus convallarius - 5, 8, 12
Botrychium ascendens - 5, 8, 24
Botrychium crenulatum - 5, 8, 19, 22, 24, 25
Botrychium hesperium - 8, 19, 22, 25
Botrychium pallidum - 8
Botrychium paradoxum - 2, 8, 13
Brayia humilis - 16
Carex craweii - 22
Carex gravida - 2, 8
Carex idahoa - 2, 3, 6, 8
Carex lacustris - 6
Carex plectocarpa - 4, 13
Castilleja covilleana - 8, 19, 22
Castilleja exilis - 6
Clarkia rhomboidea - 9, 28, 27
Cryptantha fendleri - 9, 12
Cypripedium parviflorum - 2, 5, 6
Cypripedium passerinum - 5, 8, 28, 13, 25
Draba densifolia - 2, 8, 12, 13, 22
Drosera anglica - 5, 6, 8, 28, 23
Elymus flavescens - 11, 12
Epipactis gigantea - 6, 7, 8, 28, 21
Erigeron linearis - 5, 8, 27
Eriophorum gracile - 5, 6, 8, 21
Gentianopsis macounii - 6
Goodyera repens - 19
Heteranthera dubia - 6, 14
Heterocodon rariflorum - 8, 12, 13, 25
Howellia aquatilis - 5, 6, 8, 28, 19
Juncus acuminatus - 6
Kochia americana - 1, 6
Lagophylla ramosissima - 8
Lomatium nuttallii - 2, 3, 8, 18
Lomatogonium rotatum - 2, 6
Mertensia bella - 16
Mimulus nanus - 8, 19, 22
Nuttallanthus texanus - 16
Penstemon lemhiensis - 2, 8, 9, 22, 27
Petasites frigidus - 28, 13, 22, 25
Phlegopteris connectilis - 5, 6, 8, 19
Phlox kelseyi var. missoulensis - 5, 8, 13
Physaria didymocarpa var. lanata - 2, 8, 18
Physaria douglasii - 6, 12
Physaria humilis - 5, 13, 25
Polygonum austinae (P. douglasii ssp austinae) - 8
Potamogeton obtusifolius - 2, 5, 14
Primula incana - 2, 6, 27
Prunus pumila - 20, 22
Puccinelia lemmonii - 2, 8
Ranunculus cardiophyllus - 8
Ranunculus pedatifidus - 8, 17
Sandbergia perplexa - 8, 19, 22
Scheuchzeria palustris - 5, 6, 8, 27
Schoenoplectus subterminalis - 5, 28, 14
Spiranthes diluvialis - 2, 5, 8
Stenogonum salsuginosum - 16
Thalictrum alpinum - 2, 3, 6
Townsendia condensata - 13
Trichophorum alpinum - 13, 25
Trifolium eriocephalum - 8, 19, 22
Trifolium gymnocarpon - 8, 19, 22
Vaccinium myrtilloides - 5, 19
Viburnum lentago - 28

Category 3 Species (Insignificant Threat Levels or No Known Threats)

Alnus rubra
Astragalus aretioides
Astragalus geyeri
Astragalus lackschewitzii
Astragalus racemosus
Astragalus scaphoides
Astragalus terminalis
Atriplex truncata
Bacopa rotundifolia
Balsamorhiza hookeri
Balsamorhiza macrophylla
Bidens beckii
Boechera demissa
Botrychium pedunculosum
Camissonia andina
Camissonia parvula
Cardamine oligosperma var. kamtschatica
Cardamine rupicola
Carex chordorhiza
Carex incurviformis
Carex petricosa
Carex rostrata
Carex tenuiflora
Cercocarpus montanus
Claytonia arenicola
Cleome lutea
Cryptantha scoparia
Dalea enneandra
Delphinium bicolor var. calcicola
Downingia laeta
Draba crassa
Draba daviesiae
Draba macounii
Draba porsildii
Draba ventosa
Drosera linearis
Dryopteris cristata
Eleocharis rostellata
Elodea bifoliata (E. longivaginata)
Elymus innovatus
Ericameria discoidea
Ericameria parryi
Erigeron allocotus
Erigeron asperugineus
Erigeron flabellifolius
Erigeron lackschewitzii
Erigeron leiomerus
Erigeron parryi
Erigeron radicatus
Erigeron tener
Eriogonum brevicaule var. canum
Eriogonum caespitosum
Eriogonum soliceps
Eriogonum visheri
Eriophorum callitrix
Euphrasia subarctica (E. arctica)
Festuca vivipara
Gentiana glauca
Gentianopsis simplex
Githopsis specularioides
Gratiola ebracteata
Gymnosteris parvula
Hornungia procumbens
Ipomopsis congesta var. crebrifolia
Juncus albescens
Juncus hallii
Kalmia polifolia
Kobresia sibirica
Kobresia simpliciuscula
Koenigia islandica
Leptodactylon caespitosum
Lewisia columbiana
Liparis loeselii
Lomatium attenuatum
Lycopodium denroideum
Lycopodiella inundata
Lycopodium lagopus
Malacothrix torreyi
Mentzelia pumila
Mimulus breviflorus
Mimulus primuloides
Nama densum
Noccaea parviflorum
Nymphaea tetragona
Ophioglossum pusillum
Oxytropis deflexa var. foliosa
Oxytropis lagopus var. conjugens
Oxytropis parryi
Oxytropis podocarpa
Papaver radicatum
Papaver pygmaeum
Pedicularis contorta var. ctneophora
Pedomelum hypogaeum
Penstemon angustifolius
Penstemon caryi
Penstemon flavescens
Phacelia incana
Phippsia algida
Phlox andicola
Physaria brassicoides
Physaria klausii
Physaria pulchella
Pleiacanthus spinosus
Potentilla brevifolia
Potentilla hyparctica
Potentilla uniflora
Psilocarphus brevissimus
Pyrrocoma carthamoides var. subsquarrosa
Ranunculus gelidus
Ribes velutinum
Sagina nivalis
Salix barratiana
Salix serissima
Saussurea densa
Saussurea weberi
Saxifraga apetala
Saxifraga hirculus
Saxifraga tempestiva
Selaginella selaginoides
Shoshonea pulvinata
Sisyrinchium septentrionale
Sphaeralcea munroana
Sphaeromeria argentea
Sphaeromeria capitata
Sullivantia hapemanii
Synthyris canbyi
Thelypodium sagittatum
Tofieldia pusilla
Townsendia florifer
Townsendia spathulata
Trichophorum cespitosum
Trichophorum pumilum
Utricularia intermedia
Viguiera multiflora

Species Not Ranked due to insufficient or conflicting information

Botrychium campestre - 8
Botrychium lineare - 8, 15, 22, 27
Brasenia schreberi - 1, 14
Carex prairea - 6
Chenopodium subglabrum - 9, 11
Corydalis sempervirens - 8, 9, 28, 19
Cyperus schweinitzii - 11
Dryas integrifolia - 12
Eupatorium maculatum - 8
Grayia spinosa - 2
Lomatium geyeri - 8, 19
Potentilla plattensis - 2, 8
Rotala ramosior - 7

Threats List

1 Agricultural practices
2 Domestic livestock foraging
3 Domestic livestock trampling
4 Facilities development
5 Habitat conversion/loss/development
6 Hydrologic alteration
7 Hydrologic development
8 Invasive species
9 Lack of disturbance (fire suppression)
10 Lack of disturbance (natural flooding)
11 Lack of disturbance (soil disturbance)
12 Recreation (atv/orv use)
13 Recreation (human trampling)
14 Recreation (motor boats)
15 Recreation (other motorized)
16 Resource development (ore Mining)
17 Resource development (oil and Gas)
18 Resource development (coal Bed Methane)
19 Resource development (timber management)
20 Resource development (rock quarry)
21 Resource development (peat mining)
22 Road construction and maintenance
23 Ski area development
24 Soil compaction
25 Trail construction
26 Weed treatment (biological control)
27 Weed treatment (herbicide control)
28 Other

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